As I understand it, to be independent means to be outside of the mainstream, articulating one’s own voice. It also means to be outside of the institution and to emphasize multiplicity and diversity. An independent filmmaker should resist and contend with the institution; if not in the form of a social movement, then by providing one’s own voice. Take Spike Lee as just one example. His films are simple to understand, but this doesn’t make him a mainstream filmmaker. There are any number of independent elements within his work. Three Narrow Gates is independent because it is a film that people within the mainstream cannot make. This is what I understand as being “independent”.
Keywords: Hong Kong independent film, mainstream film industry
“Ethno-geocentrism” was once viewed as being logical because of the incomplete knowledge of space and humanity, and due to the sometimes self-centered nature of civilizations. It was only with the complete exploration of this world (in the early twentieth-century, including Antarctica) and the growth of internationalist or cosmopolitan feelings that a geographical and human relativization was realized.
Keywords: geography, colonialism, China, Japan